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Child Development 6th Edition Feldman Test Bank

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Child Development 6th Edition Feldman Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0205253548

ISBN-10: 0205253547

Child Development 6th Edition Feldman Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0205253548

ISBN-10: 0205253547

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Chapter 14

 

Social and Personality Development in Early Adulthood

 

 

14-1. The culturally-determined psychological timepiece providing a sense of whether we have reached the major benchmarks of life at the appropriate time in comparison to our peers is called

 

  1. a)
  2. b) intimacy-versus-isolation stage.
  3. c) postformal thought.
  4. d) social clock.

 

Answer: d  Page: 450  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-2. People living in the middle to upper classes had social clocks that were fairly uniform up until the

 

  1. a) middle of the 19th
  2. b) middle of the 21st
  3. c) middle of the 20th
  4. d) middle of the 18th

 

Answer: c  Page: 450  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-3. Psychologist Ravenna Helson found that women finding a spouse and embarking on what Helson called traditional feminine behavior occurs from ages

 

  1. a) 16-21.
  2. b) 21-27.
  3. c) 25-30.
  4. d) 30-35.

 

Answer: b  Page: 450  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-4. Which of the following is NOT one of the broad patterns discovered by Ravenna Helson in her research of women’s social roles?

 

  1. a) Women who chose to focus on family and women who chose to focus on career both showed similar personality development.
  2. b) Both women who chose to focus on family and women who chose to focus on career generally demonstrated positive changes in personality development.
  3. c) Women who chose not to focus on either family or career tended to show either little or a more negative shift in personality development.
  4. d) Women who chose to focus on family demonstrated less confidence and less satisfaction over time than those women who chose to focus on career.

 

Answer: d  Page: 450  Level: Difficult  Type: Conceptual

 

14-5. Psychologist Ravenna Helson’s research demonstrated that the critical factor in the course of personality development for women is

 

  1. a) the social clock they choose.
  2. b) the process of choosing a particular social clock.
  3. c) the ability to “have it all.”
  4. d) the success of a woman’s academic development in earlier years.

 

Answer: b  Page: 450  Level: Medium  Type: Conceptual

 

14-6. According to Erikson, the period of post-adolescence into the early 30s that focuses on developing close relationships with others is called

 

  1. a) intimacy-versus-isolation stage.
  2. b) postformal thought.
  3. c) social clock.
  4. d) social role.

 

Answer: a  Page: 451  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-7. According to Erikson, the focus of a person’s early 30s is

 

  1. a) career success.
  2. b) providing for self and family.
  3. c) developing close, intimate relationships with others.
  4. d) taking care of physical health.

 

Answer: c  Page: 451  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-8. According to Erikson, when a person is in his/her 30s, intimacy is related to all of the following EXCEPT

 

  1. a) the degree of selfishness or sacrifice of one’s own needs for those of another.
  2. b) less selfishness in sexual matters.
  3. c) efforts to develop deep devotion to another person.
  4. d) the effort to exude confidence and independence.

 

Answer: d  Page: 451  Level: Medium  Type: Conceptual

 

14-9. According to Erikson, if a person in his/her 30s is unable to resolve the intimacy-versus-isolation stage, he/she is most likely to demonstrate all of the following characteristics EXCEPT

 

  1. a) the ability to build relationships with others.
  2. b) feelings of loneliness.
  3. c) fear of relationships.
  4. d) feelings of isolation.

 

Answer: a  Page: 451  Level: Medium  Type: Conceptual

 

14-10. While Erikson’s intimacy-versus-isolation stage approach has been influential, some aspects of his theory have come under scrutiny by today’s developmentalists in all of the following areas EXCEPT

 

  1. a) Erikson’s point of view of healthy intimacy was limited to heterosexuality.
  2. b) Erikson’s point of view focused on men’s development rather than women’s development.
  3. c) Erikson did not recognize that some couples are childless by choice.
  4. d) Erikson’s emphasis on examining the continued growth and development of the personality throughout the lifespan.

 

Answer: d  Page: 451  Level: Medium  Type: Conceptual

 

14-11. All of the following reasons are explanations as to why people become friends EXCEPT

 

  1. a) proximity – people form friendships with those nearby and accessible.
  2. b) similarity between people who hold the same attitudes and values.
  3. c) social standing and financial security.
  4. d) personal qualities such as loyalty, affection, supportiveness, frankness, and a good sense of humor.

 

Answer: c  Pages: 451 – 452  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-12. Which of the following is NOT a reason to develop a friendship?

 

  1. a) companionship
  2. b) competition
  3. c) social approval
  4. d) occasional helping hand

 

Answer: b  Pages: 451 – 452  Level: Medium  Type: Applied

 

14-13. The theory that relationships proceed in a fixed order of three stages: stimulus, value, and role is called

 

  1. a) social role theory.
  2. b) stimulus-value-role (SVR) theory.
  3. c) intimacy-versus-isolation stage.
  4. d) labeling theory.

 

Answer: b  Page: 452  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-14. According to psychologist Bernard Murstein, the first stage of his stimulus-value-role is based on

 

  1. a) similar interests and values.
  2. b) close proximity and availability.
  3. c) physical characteristics such as the way someone looks.
  4. d) increased interactions between two people of different backgrounds.

 

Answer: c  Page: 452  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-15. According to psychologist Bernard Murstein, the second stage of his stimulus-value-role (SVR) is based on

 

  1. a) similar interests and values within the second to the seventh encounter.
  2. b) close geographical proximity and availability.
  3. c) physical characteristics such as the way someone looks.
  4. d) increased interactions between two people of different backgrounds.

 

Answer: a  Page: 452  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-16. According to psychologist Bernard Murstein, the third stage of his stimulus-value-role (SVR) is based on

 

  1. a) similar interests and values within the second to the seventh encounter.
  2. b) close geographical proximity and availability.
  3. c) physical characteristics such as the way someone looks.
  4. d) the relationship and specific roles played by the

 

Answer: d  Page: 452  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-17. According to psychologist Bernard Murstein, his stimulus-value-role (SVR) has

 

  1. a) multiple stages.
  2. b) 3 stages.
  3. c) 8 stages.
  4. d) shifting stages.

 

Answer: b  Page: 452  Level: Easy  Type: Factual

 

14-18. In Bernard Murstein’s stimulus-value-role (SVR) model, how many contacts must a couple have before reaching the third stage, known as the role stage?

 

  1. a) one contact.
  2. b) eight or more contacts.
  3. c) between two and seven contacts.
  4. d) at least five contacts.

 

Answer: b  Page: 452  Level: Medium  Type: Applied

 

14-19. Ron and Samantha have increasingly been in each other’s company, and they have begun to feel that their own psychological well-being is tied to the relationship.  They have been going out two times a week for at least four months.  What stage of Bernard Murstein’s stimulus-value-role (SVR) model are they likely in?

 

  1. a) stimulus stage
  2. b) value stage
  3. c) role stage
  4. d) labeling stage

 

Answer: c  Page: 452  Level: Easy  Type: Applied

 

14-20. The component of love that encompasses feelings of closeness, affection, and connectedness is called

 

  1. a) companionate love.
  2. b) intimacy component.
  3. c) passionate (or romantic) love
  4. d) passion component.

 

Answer: b  Page: 454  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-21. The component of love that comprises the motivational drives relating to sex, physical closeness, and romance is called

 

  1. a) companionate love.
  2. b) intimacy component.
  3. c) passionate (or romantic) love
  4. d) passion component.

 

Answer: d  Page: 454  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-22. Psychologist Robert Sternberg suggests that love requires a more complex explanation and is made up of

 

  1. a) three components.
  2. b) eight components.
  3. c) four components.
  4. d) two components.

 

Answer: a  Page: 454  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-23. According to psychologist Robert Sternberg, the three components of love include all of the following EXCEPT

 

  1. a) passion component that comprises the motivational drives relating to sex, physical closeness, and romance.
  2. b) intimacy component that encompasses feelings of closeness, affection, and connectedness.
  3. c) companionate love where strong affection is apparent with people whose lives are deeply involved.
  4. d) decision/commitment component that embodies both the initial cognition that one loves another, as well as the long-term determination to maintain that love.

 

Answer: c  Page: 454  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-24. According to Robert Sternberg, when two people have a “fling” or short-term relationship based only on sexual attraction, this is called

 

  1. a)
  2. b) infatuated love.
  3. c)
  4. d) empty love.

 

Answer: b  Page: 454  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-25. According to Robert Sternberg, when two people are living in an arranged marriage or a couple has decided to stay together “for the sake of the children,” this is called

 

  1. a)
  2. b) fatuous love.
  3. c)
  4. d) empty love.

 

Answer: d  Page: 454  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-26. According to Robert Sternberg, infatuated love develops when only _________ is present.

 

  1. a) passion
  2. b) intimacy
  3. c) loyalty
  4. d) similarity

 

Answer: a  Page: 454  Level: Medium  Type: Conceptual

 

14-27. According to Robert Sternberg, empty love develops when only _________ is present.

 

  1. a) intimacy
  2. b) decision/commitment
  3. c) loyalty
  4. d) similarity

 

Answer: b  Page: 454  Level: Medium  Type: Conceptual

 

14-28. Jerome and Alice have been married for 15 years, and their marriage is strained with bickering and unhappiness.  Still, they are not considering a divorce because they have an 8-year-old son whom they both love deeply. Psychologist Robert Sternberg would call their relationship

 

  1. a) companionate love.
  2. b) empty love.
  3. c) fatuous love.
  4. d)

 

Answer: b  Page: 454  Level: Medium  Type: Applied

 

14-29. According to Robert Sternberg, when two people are happily dating one another but not making future plans, this is called

 

  1. a) romantic love.
  2. b) fatuous love.
  3. c) companionate love.
  4. d) infatuated love.

 

Answer: a  Page: 455  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-30. According to Robert Sternberg, when two people enjoy each other’s company and their relationship but no longer feel much sexual interest for the other, it is called

 

  1. a)
  2. b)
  3. c) companionate love.
  4. d) empty love.

 

Answer: c  Page: 455  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-31. According to Robert Sternberg, when two people share a loving, sexually vibrant, long-term relationship, this is called

 

  1. a) companionate love.
  2. b) infatuated love.
  3. c) fatuous love.
  4. d) consummate love.

 

Answer: d  Page: 455  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-32. According to Robert Sternberg, when two people decide to move in together after knowing each other for only two weeks, this is called

 

  1. a) companionate love.
  2. b) infatuated love.
  3. c) fatuous love.
  4. d) consummate love.

 

Answer: c  Page: 455  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-33. According to Robert Sternberg, liking develops when only _________ is present.

 

  1. a) passion
  2. b) intimacy
  3. c) loyalty
  4. d) similarity

 

Answer: b  Page: 454  Level: Medium  Type: Conceptual

 

14-34. According to Robert Sternberg, companionate love develops when _________ is (are) present.

 

  1. a) intimacy and decision/commitment
  2. b) infatuation
  3. c) passion and intimacy
  4. d) passion and decision/commitment

 

Answer: a  Page: 455  Level: Medium  Type: Conceptual

 

14-35. According to Robert Sternberg, fatuous love develops when _________ is (are) present.

 

  1. a) intimacy and decision/commitment
  2. b) infatuation
  3. c) passion and intimacy
  4. d) passion and decision/commitment

 

Answer: d  Page: 455  Level: Medium  Type: Conceptual

 

14-36. Mark and Angela met one night at a local bar, and after dating for two weeks they decided to move in together, despite barely knowing each other.  Psychologist Robert Sternberg would call their relationship

 

  1. a) companionate love.
  2. b) infatuated love.
  3. c) fatuous love.
  4. d) empty love.

 

Answer: c  Page: 455  Level: Medium  Type: Applied

 

14-37. Stella and Anthony have been happily married for 22 years, and they still enjoy an active sex life and participate in many activities together.  Psychologist Robert Sternberg would call their relationship

 

  1. a) consummate love.
  2. b) companionate love.
  3. c) romantic love.
  4. d)

 

Answer: a  Page: 455  Level: Medium  Type: Applied

 

14-38. Darnell and Denise have been happily dating for months; however, they do not feel compelled to make a long-term commitment yet. Psychologist Robert Sternberg would call their relationship

 

  1. a) consummate love.
  2. b) companionate love.
  3. c) romantic love.
  4. d)

 

Answer: c  Page: 455  Level: Medium  Type: Applied

 

14-39. Surveys indicate that a high proportion of the following college students would consider it acceptable to marry without love.

 

  1. a) S. college students
  2. b) Japanese college students
  3. c) Brazilian college students
  4. d) Pakistani college students

 

Answer: d  Page: 455  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-40. In what culture do men rank good health more important in marriage than love?

 

  1. a) Pakistan
  2. b) Japan
  3. c) China
  4. d) Mexico

 

Answer: c  Page: 456  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-41. Which of the following is an explanation for cross-cultural similarities and gender differences?

 

  1. a) evolutionary factors
  2. b) personality factors
  3. c) social factors
  4. d) familial factors

 

Answer: a  Page: 457  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-42. In Jamar’s culture, the tendency to marry someone who is similar in age, race, education, and religion is referred to as which of the following?

 

  1. a) marriage gradient
  2. b) homogamy
  3. c) cross-cultural factor
  4. d) gender replication

 

Answer: b  Page: 457  Level: Medium  Type: Applied

 

14-43. Jorge has been taught to marry a woman who is younger, smaller, and lower in status.  This is referred to as the

 

  1. a) marriage gradient.
  2. b) social norm.
  3. c) social mores.
  4. d) societal bias.

 

Answer: a  Page: 458  Level: Medium  Type: Applied

 

14-44. Which of the following is an example of “bottom of the barrel” men?

 

  1. a) men who do not marry because they cannot find a woman of low enough status
  2. b) men who do not marry because of compatibility
  3. c) men who are fearful of commitment
  4. d) men who find women unappealing

 

Answer: a  Page: 458  Level: Medium  Type: Conceptual

 

14-45. In what culture does the marriage gradient make finding a spouse difficult when the person is well-educated?

 

  1. a) Asian American men
  2. b) African American women
  3. c) Mexican American men
  4. d) Canadian women

 

Answer: b  Page: 458  Level: Medium  Type: Conceptual

 

14-46. Which of the following reflects a secure attachment style?

 

  1. a) someone who is uncomfortable being close to others
  2. b) someone who finds others are reluctant to get as close to them as they would like to be to that person
  3. c) someone who finds it easy to get close to others and is comfortable depending on them
  4. d) someone who has difficulty staying in positive relationships

 

Answer: c  Page: 459  Level: Difficult  Type: Conceptual

 

14-47. Which of the following is an example of the avoidant attachment style?

 

  1. a) people who find it easy to get close to others
  2. b) people who are uncomfortable being close to others
  3. c) people who are reluctant to get close to others
  4. d) people who do not want to compromise

 

Answer: b  Page: 459  Level: Medium  Type: Conceptual

 

14-48. Research suggests that most gay and lesbian couples

 

  1. a) have relationships that are not as stable as heterosexual couples.
  2. b) want to adopt children and raise a family.
  3. c) prefer cohabitation.
  4. d) seek loving, long-term, and meaningful relationships.

 

Answer: d  Page: 460  Level: Difficult  Type: Conceptual

 

14-49. For the past three decades, there has been a significant

 

  1. a) rise in the number of couples getting married.
  2. b) decline in the number of couples living together without getting married.
  3. c) decline in the number of couples getting married.
  4. d) decline in the number of same-sex couples living together.

 

Answer: c  Page: 461  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-50. The term that the United States Census Bureau uses for couples that live together without being married is

 

  1. a)
  2. b)
  3. c) persons of the opposite sex sharing living quarters (POSSLQs).
  4. d)

 

Answer: c  Page: 461  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-51. The average age of POSSLQs is between ___ and

 

  1. a) 25; 34.
  2. b) 18; 30.
  3. c) 20; 24.
  4. d) 35; 55.

 

Answer: a  Page: 461  Level: Difficult  Type: Factual

 

14-52. Which one of the following groups of people living in the U.S. are likely to cohabit?

 

  1. a) Caucasian Americans
  2. b) Mexican Americans
  3. c) Asian Americans
  4. d) African Americans

 

Answer: d  Page: 461  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-53. In which of the following countries is cohabitation the norm?

 

  1. a) United States
  2. b) Sweden
  3. c) Brazil
  4. d) India

 

Answer: b  Page: 461  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-54. All of the following are reasons why young adults choose to marry EXCEPT

 

  1. a) they believe it is the appropriate culmination of a loving relationship and the right thing to do.
  2. b) having a spouse can fill an economic and sexual role with legal benefits and protections.
  3. c) having a spouse offers a means of having children that is accepted by society.
  4. d) marriage offers a guaranteed commitment to both parties.

 

Answer: d  Pages: 461 – 462  Level: Medium  Type: Applied

 

14-55. The median age of first time marriage in the U.S. is now _____ for men and _____ for women.

 

  1. a) 35; 25
  2. b) 27; 25
  3. c) 32; 30
  4. d) 28; 24

 

Answer: b  Page: 462  Level: Difficult  Type: Factual

 

14-56. What is the legal alternative to marriage in France in which couples receive many of the same legal rights as married couples without a legal lifetime commitment?

 

  1. a) civil unions
  2. b) Civil Solidarity Pacts
  3. c) nonbinding contracts
  4. d) prenuptial agreements

 

Answer: b  Page: 462  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-57. What percentage of people eventually marry?

 

  1. a) 90%
  2. b) 85%
  3. c) 55%
  4. d) 62%

 

Answer: a  Page: 462  Level: Difficult  Type: Factual

 

14-58. When polled, _____________ 18- to 29-year-olds rate a happy marriage as an important ingredient to a good life.

 

  1. a) 5 out of 10
  2. b) 3 out of 7
  3. c) 9 out of 10
  4. d) 7 out of 10

 

Answer: c  Page: 462  Level: Difficult  Type: Factual

 

14-59. Which of the following is NOT a typical characteristic of a happy marriage?

 

  1. a) Partners show affection and communicate relatively little negativity about one
  2. b) Partners establish early on in the marriage the superior and inferior positions of the partners.
  3. c) Partners perceive themselves as interdependent rather than two independent entities.
  4. d) Partners have social homogamy and share leisure activities, role preferences, similar interests, and agree on distribution of roles.

 

Answer: b  Pages: 462 – 463  Level: Medium  Type: Conceptual

 

14-60. What percentage of marriages in the U.S. remain intact?

 

  1. a) 75%
  2. b) 65%
  3. c) 45%
  4. d) 50%

 

Answer: d  Page: 463  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-61. According to research reported in the text, which country has the least divorce?

 

  1. a) Denmark
  2. b) Canada
  3. c) Italy
  4. d) France

 

Answer: c  Page: 463  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-62. In the United States, what is the average amount of money that parents will spend on one child from birth until the child reaches age 18?

 

  1. a) $150,000
  2. b) $221,000
  3. c) $100,000
  4. d) $300,000

 

Answer: b  Page: 464  Level: Difficult  Type: Factual

 

14-63. All of the following are reasons why young adults choose to have children EXCEPT

 

  1. a) to get pleasure from watching their children grow, and fulfillment from seeing them be successful.
  2. b) they may hope that their children will provide for them when they are old, take over the family business, or provide companionship.
  3. c) to get financial gain from governmental benefits programs such as tax breaks and welfare.
  4. d) they feel a strong pressure that having children is a societal norm.

 

Answer: c  Page: 464  Level: Medium  Type: Conceptual

 

14-64. What is the most likely reason for the dramatic decrease in the number of children in the average American family?

 

  1. a) the increase in religious-based sex-abstinence programs
  2. b) the availability and use of effective contraceptives
  3. c) the decrease in the number of people getting married
  4. d) an increase in same-sex couplings

 

Answer: b  Page: 464  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-65. In the 1930s, 70% of Americans who were polled reported that the ideal number of children to have was _________.  In the 1990s, Americans who were polled reported that the ideal number of children to have is

 

  1. a) 5 or more; no more than three if money is no object.
  2. b) 3 or more; no more than four.
  3. c) 6; no more than two.
  4. d) 3 or more; no more than two, although three or more is ideal if money is no object.

 

Answer: d  Page: 464  Level: Difficult  Type: Factual

 

14-66. When did the fertility rate peak in the United States?

 

  1. a) after World War I, when each woman had 4.5 children
  2. b) after World War II, when each woman had 3.7 children
  3. c) after the Vietnam War, when each woman had 2.5 children
  4. d) now, while the current rate is 2.1 children born to each woman

 

Answer: b  Page: 465  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-67. The number of children that one generation must produce to be able to replenish its numbers is called

 

  1. a) fertility rate.
  2. b) birth rate.
  3. c) replacement level.
  4. d) generation replacement.

 

Answer: c  Page: 465  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-68. Which of the following is a reason for the decline in the fertility rate?

 

  1. a) women returning to school
  2. b) declining health of the population
  3. c) women joining the workforce
  4. d) sexual education

 

Answer: c  Page: 465  Level: Medium  Type: Conceptual

 

14-69. Which of the following age groups of women giving birth have increased over earlier decades?

 

  1. a) 24-28
  2. b) 30-34
  3. c) 35-38
  4. d) 38-40

 

Answer: b  Page: 465  Level: Difficult  Type: Factual

 

14-70. Sociologist Robin Simon conducted a study in 2008. The study focused on American families and happiness with children.  Which of the following best summarizes the findings of her study?

 

  1. a) Parents experience lower levels of emotional well-being, less frequent positive                                    emotions and more frequent negative emotions than their peers who did not                                               have children.
  2. b) Parents who have children experience higher levels of emotional well-being and                                  more frequent positive emotions than parents who did not have children.
  3. c) Parents are happier and more content than parents who do not have children.
  4. d) Parents will rely on their memories of their own childhood to secure happiness.

 

Answer: a  Page: 465  Level: Difficult  Type: Conceptual

 

14-71. What percent of gay men and lesbian women are parents?

 

  1. a) 5%
  2. b) 10%
  3. c) 15%
  4. d) 20%

 

Answer: d  Page: 467  Level: Difficult  Type: Factual

 

14-72. Research suggests that children raised in households in which parents are homosexual

 

  1. a) show no differences in eventual adjustment.
  2. b) show significant differences in adjustment.
  3. c) show adjustment differences in school.
  4. d) show adjustment differences in socialization.

 

Answer: a  Page: 468  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-73. Psychologist George Vaillant believed that a stage entered between the ages of 20 and 40, when young adults become centered on their careers is called

 

  1. a) realistic period.
  2. b) fantasy period.
  3. c) career consolidation.
  4. d) tentative period.

 

Answer: c  Page: 469 Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-74. According to psychologist George Vaillant’s longitudinal research study of male Harvard graduates, all of the following usually occur when a man is in his late 20s and early 30s except

 

  1. a) he gets married.
  2. b) he has children.
  3. c) he concentrates on his career.
  4. d) he fulfills obligations to his parents.

 

Answer: d  Page: 469  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-75. What was a conclusion developed by John Holland in his personality type theory?

 

  1. a) A person should choose a career based on certain personality characteristics.
  2. b) Certain personality types match well with certain careers.
  3. c) Career success will depend on the particular training of the person.
  4. d) Happiness in a career is dependent on a college education.

 

Answer: b  Page: 470  Level: Difficult  Type: Conceptual

 

14-76. According to Ginzberg, the period lasting until about age 11, when career choices are made, and discarded, without regard to skills, abilities, or available job opportunities is called

 

  1. a) career consolidation.
  2. b) fantasy period.
  3. c) tentative period.
  4. d) realistic period.

 

Answer: b  Page: 470  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-77. When Bobby was 8 years old, he was sure he wanted to grow up to be a fireman.  But just a year later, Bobby told everybody that when he grew up he wanted to be an astronaut.  Still, a few years passed and when he was around 11 years old he changed his mind again and wanted to be a professional basketball player.  According to Ginzberg, Bobby is in the

 

  1. a) tentative period.
  2. b) career consolidation period.
  3. c) realistic period.
  4. d) fantasy period.

 

Answer: d  Page: 470  Level: Medium  Type: Applied

 

14-78. According to Ginzberg’s theory, the second stage, which spans adolescence, when people begin to think in pragmatic terms about the requirements of various jobs and how their own abilities might fit with them, is called

 

  1. a) realistic period.
  2. b) career consolidation.
  3. c) tentative period.
  4. d) fantasy period.

 

Answer: c  Page: 470  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-79. Jack is 16-years-old and wants to become an architect like his father and eventually take over the family architectural firm when he grows up.  However, Jack has been evaluated and found to have a specific learning disability in mathematics.  Jack may need to reconsider his plans based upon the difficulty he experiences with all forms of math.  According to Ginzberg, Jack is in the

 

  1. a) fantasy period.
  2. b) tentative period.
  3. c) career consolidation period.
  4. d) realistic period.

 

Answer: b  Page: 470  Level: Medium  Type: Applied

 

14-80. According to Ginzberg’s theory, the third stage, which occurs in early adulthood when people begin to explore specific career options, either through actual experience on the job or through training for a profession, and then narrow their choices and make a commitment, is called

 

  1. a) fantasy period.
  2. b) tentative period.
  3. c) career consolidation period.
  4. d) realistic period.

 

Answer: d  Page: 470  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-81. Sheila went to college to study accounting, and got her first entry level job right after graduating.  However, as she gained more experience at the law firm where she worked, she became more knowledgeable about tax law and decided to make a commitment to go to law school and become a tax lawyer.  According to Ginzberg, Sheila is in the

 

  1. a) tentative period.
  2. b) realistic period.
  3. c) career consolidation period.
  4. d) fantasy period.

 

Answer: b  Page: 470  Level: Medium  Type: Applied

 

14-82. According to psychologist John Holland’s research, the greater the correspondence between career choices and _____________, the happier people will be in their choice.

 

  1. a) family/marriage responsibilities
  2. b) family history and birth order
  3. c) physical attributes and genetic predisposition
  4. d) personality traits

 

Answer: d  Page: 470 Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-83. According to John Holland’s personality type theory, people who are down-to-earth, practical problem solvers, and physically strong, but have mediocre social skills are best described as

 

  1. a)
  2. b)
  3. c)
  4. d)

 

Answer: c  Page: 470  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-84. Researcher John Holland created the personality type theory, which contains ____ career/psychological trait matches.

 

  1. a) 8
  2. b) 5
  3. c) 6
  4. d) 10

 

Answer: c  Pages: 470 – 471  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-85. Whose research regarding career choice and personality traits has been validated and used as the foundation for “job quizzes” that people take to see what occupations they might enjoy?

  1. a) Ginzberg
  2. b) Vaillant
  3. c) Wechsler
  4. d) Holland

 

Answer: d  Pages: 470 – 471  Level: Difficult  Type: Factual

 

 

14-86. According to John Holland’s personality type theory, people who are oriented toward the theoretical and abstract, well-suited for math and science, but are not particularly good with people are described as

 

  1. a)
  2. b)
  3. c)
  4. d)

 

Answer: d  Page: 471  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-87. According to John Holland’s personality type theory, people who are associated with good verbal and interpersonal relationship skills are described as

 

  1. a)
  2. b)
  3. c)
  4. d)

 

Answer: c  Page: 471  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-88. According to John Holland’s personality type theory, people who prefer highly structured tasks are described as

 

  1. a)
  2. b)
  3. c)
  4. d)

 

Answer: a  Page: 471  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-89. According to John Holland’s personality type theory, people who are risk-takers and take-charge types with good leadership skills are described as

 

  1. a)
  2. b)
  3. c)
  4. d)

 

Answer: b  Page: 471 Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-90. In the 1960s, employment ads in newspapers for women generally presented all of the following opportunities EXCEPT

 

  1. a) police officer.
  2. b)
  3. c)
  4. d)

 

Answer: a  Page: 471  Level: Medium  Type: Applied

 

14-91. Occupations that are associated with relationships are called

 

  1. a)
  2. b)
  3. c)
  4. d)

 

Answer: c  Page: 471 Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-92. Occupations that are associated with getting things accomplished are called

 

  1. a)
  2. b)
  3. c)
  4. d)

 

Answer: b  Page: 471  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-93. Women today make up ____% of the U.S. labor force.

 

  1. a) 60
  2. b) 35
  3. c) 50
  4. d) 55

 

Answer: d  Page: 472  Level: Difficult  Type: Factual

 

14-94. In what percentage of households in the U.S. do women earn as much as their husbands?

 

  1. a) 50%
  2. b) 30%
  3. c) 80%
  4. d) 25%

 

Answer: a  Page: 472  Level: Difficult  Type: Factual

 

14-95. When women and minorities hit an invisible barrier within an organization that, because of discrimination, prevents individuals from being promoted beyond a certain level, it is called the

 

  1. a) saturation level.
  2. b) glass ceiling.
  3. c)
  4. d)

 

Answer: b  Page: 472  Level: Easy  Type: Factual

 

14-96 What type of motivation drives people to obtain tangible rewards such as money and prestige?

 

  1. a) career consolidation
  2. b) intrinsic motivation
  3. c) extrinsic motivation
  4. d) status

 

Answer: c  Page: 472  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-97. Bernice is a go-getter at her sales job because she likes the finer things of life like sports cars, jewelry, and expensive vacations.  Bernice is most likely motivated by

 

  1. a) intrinsic motivation.
  2. b) career consolidation.
  3. c)
  4. d) extrinsic motivation.

 

Answer: d  Page: 472  Level: Medium  Type: Applied

 

14-98. The motivation that causes people to work for their own enjoyment, not for the rewards work may bring is called

 

  1. a) intrinsic motivation.
  2. b) career consolidation.
  3. c)
  4. d) extrinsic motivation.

 

Answer: a  Page: 472  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-99. Brenda owns a small bookstore that also serves as an art gallery for her artwork and that of some of her friends.  While this business may never make Brenda wealthy, she admits that it has been her dream since she was an art student in college.  Brenda appears to be motivated by

 

  1. a) career consolidation.
  2. b)
  3. c) intrinsic motivation.
  4. d) extrinsic motivation.

 

Answer: c  Page: 472  Level: Medium  Type: Applied

 

14-100. The evaluation of a role or person by other relevant members of a group or society is called

 

  1. a) career consolidation.
  2. b)
  3. c) intrinsic motivation.
  4. d) extrinsic motivation.

 

Answer: b  Page: 473  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

 

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

14-101. Briefly provide criticisms of psychologist David Buss’s evolutionary explanation for gender differences in choosing mates.

 

Answer: Critics claim that the evolutionary explanation for gender differences in choosing mates is untestable.  Similarities across cultures relating to gender preferences in seeking a mate may be due more to gender stereotyping than evolution.  There are inconsistencies across cultures with regard to gender differences between male and female preferences in a mate.  The consistencies that are found across cultures in gender preferences may have more to do with the realities of economic life than evolution.

 

Page: 457  Level: Difficult  Type: Conceptual

 

14-102. Briefly describe the main issues surrounding the marriage gradient and partner choice.

 

Answer: The marriage gradient is the tendency for men to marry women who are slightly younger, smaller, and lower in status, and women to marry men who are slightly older, larger, and higher in status. It affects partner choice by limiting the number of potential mates for women, especially as they age, while allowing men a wider choice of partners as their age increases. Some men do not marry because they cannot find women of low enough status to meet the demands of the gradient. Some women are unable to marry because they are higher in status and seek someone of higher status than anyone in the available pool.

 

Page: 458   Level: Medium  Type: Applied

 

14-103. Briefly describe current research findings with regard to lesbian and gay relationships.

 

Answer: Findings suggest that gay and lesbian relationships are quite similar to heterosexual relationships.  Gay men describe a successful relationship in the same way as a heterosexual couple would describe a successful relationship.  Gay and lesbian couples seek high levels of attachment, caring, intimacy, affection, and respect.  The age gradient in hetero and homosexual relationships is the same.  Gay men prefer a partner who is the same age or younger.  There is virtually no scientific data regarding gay and lesbian marriage since the first legal homosexual marriage occurred in the U.S. in 2004.

Pages: 459 – 460  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-104. Briefly explain some criticism of Ginzberg’s career choice theory.

 

Answer: Critics charge that it is an oversimplification of the process of choosing a career.  Because his research was based on the middle socioeconomic class, his theory may overstate the choices and options available to lower socioeconomic levels.  The ages that Ginzberg associates with each level or stage may be too rigid and not reflect the seriousness of decisions that people make who leave high school and immediately enter a job.  Additionally, economic shifts may cause people to have to change careers at different point in their lives even though they did not plan on changing careers.

 

Page: 470  Level: Medium  Type: Conceptual

 

 

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

14-105. Everyone’s social clock is culturally determined.

 

Answer: True  Pages: 450 – 451  Level: Easy  Type: Factual

 

14-106. Psychologist Ravenna Helson believes that people have several social clocks to choose from, and that choice can significantly affect a person’s psychological development in middle adulthood.

 

Answer: True  Pages: 450 – 451  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-107. Maintaining close relationships is an important preoccupation for most young adults.

 

Answer: True  Page: 451  Level: Easy  Type: Conceptual

 

14-108. The idea of romantic love is primarily an Eastern concept.

 

Answer: False  Pages: 455 – 456  Level: Easy  Type: Conceptual

 

14-109. In some cultures it is acceptable for college students to marry without love.

 

Answer: True  Pages: 455 – 456  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-110. Love is the primary consideration when choosing a mate in all countries across the world.

 

Answer: False  Pages: 455 – 456  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-111. Zulu women rate emotional stability the most important characteristic when considering marriage.

 

Answer: False  Page: 456  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-112. Men prefer a potential spouse who is ambitious and industrious.

 

Answer: False  Page: 457  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-113. In certain ethnic groups, the importance of homogamy is declining.

 

Answer: True  Page: 457  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-114. The marriage gradient limits the number of potential partners for women.

 

Answer: True  Page: 458  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-115. Increasing research suggests men want to marry women like their mother.

 

Answer: True  Page: 458  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-116. Attachment styles continue into adulthood and affect the nature of relationships.

 

Answer: True  Pages: 458 – 459  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-117. There is no correlation between attachment style and the nature of care most adults give to their partners.

 

Answer: False  Pages: 458 – 459  Level: Medium  Type: Applied

 

14-118. As of 2005, the majority of households in the U.S. contain a married couple.

 

Answer: False  Page: 461  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-119. One of the primary questions young adults face is whether to marry.

 

Answer: True  Page: 461 – 462  Level: Easy  Type: Factual

 

14-120. Fewer U.S. citizens are married now than any other time since the late 1890s.

 

Answer: True  Page: 462  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-121. A Civil Solidarity Pact in France can be more easily dissolved than a legal marriage.

 

Answer: True  Page: 462  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-122. Deciding to delay marriage until later in life in part reflects economic and career concerns.

 

Answer: True  Page: 462  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-123. According to U.S. statistics, the median age for women getting married, age 25, is the oldest since national statistics were first collected starting in the 1880s.

 

Answer: True  Page: 462  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-124. Perceptions of marital quality over the first ten years of marriage show a decline in the early years.

 

Answer: True  Page: 463  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-125. Husbands and wives may have difficulty making the transition from being children of their parents to autonomous adults.

 

Answer: True  Pages: 462 – 463  Level: Medium  Type: Conceptual

 

14-126. Only 50% of the marriages in the United States remain intact; however, this represents a decline from a peak in divorce in the mid-1970s.

 

Answer: True  Page: 463  Level: Easy  Type: Factual

 

14-127. The United States is the only country in the world that is demonstrating an increase in the rate of divorce.

 

Answer: False  Page: 463  Level: Medium  Type: Conceptual

 

14-128. Couples who are most likely to have unplanned and unwanted pregnancies are often the most vulnerable, poor, and less educated.

 

Answer: True  Page: 464  Level: Easy  Type: Factual

 

14-129. The birth of a child produces one of the highest levels of marital satisfaction.

 

Answer: False  Page: 465  Level: Medium  Type: Conceptual

 

14-130. Some couples avoid having children for fear of not being good parents.

 

Answer: True  Page: 466  Level: Medium  Type: Conceptual

 

14-131. Singlehood has not increased significantly in the last decades.

 

Answer: False  Page: 468  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-132. Communal professions usually pay more than agentic professions.

 

Answer: False  Page: 471  Level: Medium  Type: Applied

 

14-133. It is now illegal to advertise an employment position by listing that it is specifically for either men or women.

 

Answer: True  Page: 471  Level: Medium  Type: Factual

 

14-134. Even today women earn significantly less than men for performing the exact same kind of work.

 

Answer: True  Page: 472 Level: Easy  Type: Factual

 

14-135. Status is the only thing that is associated with a person’s satisfaction with his/her work.

 

Answer: False  Page: 473  Level: Medium  Type: Conceptual

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